Schizoaffective disorder is a mental disorder with symptoms of recurring episodes of elevated or depressed mood, or of both simultaneously, that alternate with, or occur together with, distortions in perception. Schizoaffective disorder most commonly affects cognition and emotion, usually leading to auditory hallucinations, paranoia, delusions, disorganized speech, and problems with social and occupational behavior. These symptoms usually arise in early adulthood, which makes a diagnosis prior to age 13 rare. Schizoaffective disorder belongs to the schizophrenia spectrum which includes schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder, schizophreniform disorder, brief psychotic disorder, delusional disorder, substance-induced psychotic disorder and others
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder recognized by the struggle in thought processes and by poor emotional responsiveness. It is commonly noticed through auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking, along with significant social or occupational difficulties. The symptoms usually arise in young adulthood, with a global lifetime prevalence of about 0.3–0.7%. Diagnosis of Schizophrenia is based on an evaluation of observed behavior and the patient’s reported experiences. Genetics, early environment, neurobiology, and psychological and social processes seem to be the largest contributory factors to Schizophrenia. Treatment usually involves antipsychotic medication and psychotherapy, which works on vocational and social rehabilitation. People with schizophrenia are likely to have additional conditions, including major depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. The average life expectancy of people with the disorder is 12 to 15 years fewer than those without, resulting from increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate (about 5%).